Livres de France
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Mercure de France
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The Chronicles of England France and Spain
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The Sovereign Council of New France
Cahall, Raymond Du Bois. The Sovereign Council of New France: A Study in Canadian Constitutional History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1915. 274 pp. Reprint available February, 2005 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. 1-58477-467-3. Cloth. $80. * The Sovereign Council was a governmental body established by France in 1663 to administer its colony in the St. Lawrence Valley. Unusually powerful for a colonial government, the council was the primary legislative and legal authority of New France. It had the power to select judges and minor officials, control public funds and commerce with the mother country, regulate the fur trade and set policy on local affairs. Cahall treats the council's history, organization, procedure and functions, assesses its effectiveness and evaluates its achievements and failures. This valuable study was originally published as Volume LXV, Number 1 in Columbia's series Studies in History, Economics and Public Law.
Hospital Politics in Seventeenth Century France
The seventeenth century witnessed profound reforms in the way French cities administered poor relief and charitable health care. New hospitals were built to confine the able bodied and existing hospitals sheltering the sick poor contracted new medical staff and shifted their focus towards offering more medical services. Whilst these moves have often been regarded as a coherent state led policy, recent scholarship has begun to question this assumption, and pick-up on more localised concerns, and resistance to centrally imposed policies. This book engages with these concerns, to investigate the links between charitable health care, poor relief, religion, national politics and urban social order in seventeenth-century France. In so doing it revises our understanding of the roles played in these issues by the crown and social elites, arguing that central government's social policy was conservative and largely reactive to pressure from local elites. It suggests that Louis XIV's policy regarding the reform of poor relief and the creation of General Hospitals in each town and city, as enshrined in the edict of 1662, was largely driven by the religious concerns of the kingdom's devout and the financial fears of the Parisian elites that their city hospitals were overburdened. Only after the Sun King's reign did central government begin to take a proactive role in administering poor relief and health care, utilizing urban charitable institutions to further its own political goals. By reintegrating the social aspirations of urban elites into the history of French poor relief, this book shows how the key role they played in the reform of hospitals, inspired by a mix of religious, economic and social motivations. It concludes that the state could be a reluctant participant in reform, until pressured into action by assisting elite groups pursuing their own goals.
La censure royale des livres dans la France des lumi res
Dans la France du XVIIIe siècle, la censure fut moins l'ennemie que l'alliée des Lumières. Comment l'appareil de l'Etat monarchique en est-il venu à promouvoir la tolérance ? Faisant revivre les figures des censeurs royaux - savants, hommes de lettres, ecclésiastiques ou commis de l'Etat -, analysant leurs discours et leurs pratiques, racontant les innombrables affaires, des plus célèbres (l'Encyclopédie, Helvétius, Rousseau) aux plus obscures, Raymond Birn explique comment ils ont protégé la liberté d'expression contre les foudres du Parlement et de l'Eglise, et contribué à l'émergence d'un espace public en France.
Fisher s National Magazine and Industrial Record
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France and the Grand Tour
In this innovative study of the Grand Tour, Black relies on archival sources to provide an exploration of the real tourist experience rather than, as for the majority of studies of the Grand Tour, an account that is essentially based on travel literature. While sensitive to wider cultural dimensions, the author demonstrates his interest in the experience of tourists, particularly the circumstances they encountered, and the impact of the Grand Tour on British Society.
Industrial Espionage and Technology Transfer
Britain and France were the leading industrial nations in eighteenth-century Europe. This book examines the rivalry which existed between the two nations and the methods used by France to obtain the skilled manpower and technology which had given Britain the edge - particularly in the new coal-based technologies. Despite the British Act of 1719 which outlawed industrial espionage and technology transfer, France continued to bring key industrial workers from Britain and to acquire British machinery and production methods. Drawing on a mass of unpublished archival material, this book investigates the nature and application of British laws and the involvement of some major British industrialists in these issues, and discusses the extent to which French espionage had any real success.