La violence politique et son deuil
En France et en Italie, la violence exercée au nom de la classe ouvrière était fortement exaltée au sortir de 68. Pourtant, cette violence est très vite abandonnée, parfois même abjurée, par la majorité de ceux qui la préconisaient. Seule l'Italie connaîtra le « passage à l'acte », qui restera cependant résiduel par rapport au nombre initial de candidats-soldats à la révolution. Pour cette analyse, Isabelle Sommier a mené une cinquantaine d'entretiens avec ces militants français et italiens de l'extrême-gauche d'alors.
An International History of Terrorism
The aim of this book is to provide readers with the tools to understand the historical evolution of terrorism and counterterrorism over the past 150 years. In order to appreciate the contemporary challenges posed by terrorism it is necessary to look at its evolution, at the different phases it has gone through, and the transformations it has experienced. The same applies to the solutions that states have come up with to combat terrorism: the nature of terrorism changes but still it is possible to learn from past experiences even though they are not directly applicable to the present. This book provides a fresh look at the history of terrorism by providing in-depth analysis of several important terrorist crises and the reactions to them in the West and beyond. The general framework is laid out in four parts: terrorism prior to the Cold War, the Western experience with terrorism, non-Western experiences with terrorism, and contemporary terrorism and anti-terrorism. The issues covered offer a broad range of historical and current themes, many of which have been neglected in existing scholarship; it also features a chapter on the waves phenomenon of terrorism against its international background. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism studies, political violence, international history, security studies and IR.
An accessible collection of essays about one of the most dramatic moment in France's modern history: the "event" of 1968. Often seen purely as a student revolution, the events of 1968 in fact impacted on almost every aspect of French society – theatre, film, gender relations, sexuality, race and immigration, farmers, workers. This volume of essays, written by young researchers and established scholars from France, Britain and the United States is the only book in English to explore the full diversity of this extraordinary upheaval. It takes us out of Paris to the regions of France, out of the student Latin Quarter into the factories, and shows how the events of 1968 continued to reverberate throughout the next decade, and how their legacy is still highly contested in France today.
Mai 1968 et le mai rampant italien
Mai 68 est d'abord un événement singulier, ni répétition des révolutions du passé, ni anticipation d'un futur déjà théorisé. Soudaine irruption du refus de l'existant et de sa reproduction, Mai 68 constitue un moment historique qui réalise la conjonction unique de deux mouvements de lutte jusque-là séparés. D'une part la contestation de toutes les institutions et des rôles traditionnels tenus par l'individu, d'autre part la critique du travail. Il n'y a pas deux Mai 68 ; un " Mai étudiant " puis un " Mai ouvrier ". Le premier serait " petit bourgeois " pour l'idéologie prolétarienne ou " hédoniste et libertaire " pour l'imagerie médiatique ; le second manifesterait la puissance de la classe ouvrière dans " la plus grande grève de son histoire ". Ces représentations, actives dès les lendemains de l'événement, n'ont fait que se renforcer jusqu'à constituer aujourd'hui le " socle du savoir commun " sur Mai 68, celui qui pousse au dénigrement ou à la commémoration. En Italie, la commémoration de la décennie de luttes (1968-78) s'avère impossible car son souvenir est rendu tragique par la violence de l'affrontement. C'est alors un processus de refoulement qui se met en place pour délimiter ce qui fut acceptable (le " Mai rampant " de 1968-69) de ce qui ne le serait pas (" les années de plomb " de 1973-78). Mais, ce qui réunit ces mouvements, en France comme en Italie, c'est leur double dimension historique mise en avant par ce livre : la fin du cycle des révolutions prolétariennes et l'émergence de la révolution à titre humain.
Histoire politique de la Ve R publique
La Ve République est née en réaction à une crise institutionnelle profonde et dans le contexte de la guerre d’Algérie, et a vu ses traits définitifs fixés par la pratique gaulliste du pouvoir. Sa longévité n’avait rien d’assuré, et cependant elle a survécu aux évolutions politiques et sociales lourdes qui ont suivi, crises (mai 1968), alternances (mai 1981), réveil des partis ou mutations internationales (disparition de l’URSS). Cette synthèse propose à la fois un récit des grandes phases de l’histoire politique de la « Cinquième » et une description détaillée des diverses facettes de la vie politique et de son évolution. Idées, discours et pratiques politiques, action gouvernementale, phénomènes médiatiques et résultats électoraux, personnel politique et mouvements de l’opinion sont mis en relation pour mieux comprendre les relations complexes et fluctuantes entretenues par les Français avec leur système politique. Mathias BERNARD est professeur à l’Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand II). Auteur de plusieurs ouvrages sur l’histoire politique de la France au XXe siècle, il s’intéresse plus particulièrement à l’évolution des forces politiques de droite de la IIIe à la Ve République.
"Fanon was consummately incapable of telling the story of himself. He lived in the immediacy of the moment, with an intensity that embodied everything he evoked. Fanon's discourse pertained to a present tense that was unburdened by its narrative past. The little we knew about his personal life had been gleaned from passing allusions, brief glimpses that vanished as quickly as they appeared. . . . Fanon had a profound talent for life; he was a man who wanted to be the subject and actor of his own life, and it was for this reason that he was so engaging and disarming—so alive."—from the IntroductionFrantz Fanon (1925–1961) was born in Martinique, and in 1943 left to fight in Europe with Free French forces. After 1945 he studied medicine and psychiatry in Lyons and began to write. His first analysis of the effects of racism and postcolonialism, Black Skin, White Masks, appeared in 1952 and would become a foundational text for the liberation movements of the 1960s and later for postcolonial studies. In 1952 he moved to Algeria and practiced at the Blida-Joinville psychiatric hospital in French Algeria until 1957. From that year he worked full time for the Algerian independence movement, including a brief appointment as the movement's ambassador in Ghana. One of Fanon's few surviving contemporaries, Alice Cherki worked closely with Fanon at the psychiatric hospital in Blida and then later for the Algerian cause in Tunisia. This book is a record of "an epoch, a life, and a body of work often viewed as inadmissible." Cherki offers a unique assessment of Fanon's complex personality, illuminating both his psychiatric practice—of which she says, "Fanon possessed a tremendous intuition about the unconscious and a great erudition in psychoanalytic theory"—and the sources of his political activism, of his intellectual career as a pivot of the quickly changing world. Given the continuing relevance of Fanon's insights into the enduring legacy of colonialism on the psyches of the colonized, this compelling and personal account of his life and work will be required reading for anyone interested in the consequences of empire.
May 68 and Its Afterlives
During May 1968, students and workers in France united in the biggest strike and the largest mass movement in French history. Protesting capitalism, American imperialism, and Gaullism, 9 million people from all walks of life, from shipbuilders to department store clerks, stopped working. The nation was paralyzed—no sector of the workplace was untouched. Yet, just thirty years later, the mainstream image of May '68 in France has become that of a mellow youth revolt, a cultural transformation stripped of its violence and profound sociopolitical implications. Kristin Ross shows how the current official memory of May '68 came to serve a political agenda antithetical to the movement's aspirations. She examines the roles played by sociologists, repentant ex-student leaders, and the mainstream media in giving what was a political event a predominantly cultural and ethical meaning. Recovering the political language of May '68 through the tracts, pamphlets, and documentary film footage of the era, Ross reveals how the original movement, concerned above all with the question of equality, gained a new and counterfeit history, one that erased police violence and the deaths of participants, removed workers from the picture, and eliminated all traces of anti-Americanism, anti-imperialism, and the influences of Algeria and Vietnam. May '68 and Its Afterlives is especially timely given the rise of a new mass political movement opposing global capitalism, from labor strikes and anti-McDonald's protests in France to the demonstrations against the World Trade Organization in Seattle.
One Hundred Years of Solitude
One of the world's most famous novels, One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, blends the natural with the supernatural in one of the most magical reading experiences on earth. 'Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendia was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice' Gabriel Garcia Marquez's great masterpiece is the story of seven generations of the Buendia family and of Macondo, the town they have built. Though little more than a settlement surrounded by mountains, Macondo has its wars and disasters, even its wonders and its miracles. A microcosm of Columbian life, its secrets lie hidden, encoded in a book, and only Aureliano Buendia can fathom its mysteries and reveal its shrouded destiny. Blending political reality with magic realism, fantasy and comic invention, One Hundred Years of Solitude is one of the most daringly original works of the twentieth century. 'Dazzling' The New York Times
Social Movements Political Violence and the State
This book presents empirical research on the nature and structure of political violence. While most studies of social movements focus on single-nation studies, Donatella della Porta uses a comparative research design to analyze movements in two countries--Italy and Germany--from the 1960s to the 1990s. Through extensive use of official documents and in-depth interviews, della Porta is able to explain the actors' construction of external political reality, and to build a theory on political violence that synthesizes the various interactions among political actors.
Leaving Terrorism Behind
This new edited volume expands our understanding of the processes by which individuals and groups disengage from terrorism. While there has been a growing awareness of the need to understand and prevent processes of radicalization into terrorism, disengagement and deradicalization from terrorism have long been neglected areas in research on terrorism. This book uses empirical data to explore how and why individuals and groups disengage from terrorism, and what can be done to facilitate it. The work also presents a series of case studies of disengagement programmes, from Colombia, northern Europe, Italy, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, comparing and assessing their various strengths and weaknesses. In light of the lessons learned from these cases, this book describes and explains the potential for new developments in counter-terrorism. This book will be of great interest to all students of terrorism studies, war and conflict studies, international security and politics in general, as well as professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.